Patient benefit is about advancing the well-being of the patient – it is about working to meet the patient’s goals of care. One challenge with this value is that in the culture of western medicine, well-being has traditionally focused on the physiological functioning of the body. But as society becomes increasingly diverse, there is growing understanding that the psychological, emotional, spiritual, and relational needs of patients should also inform discussions of patient benefit. The related challenge with this value is that well-being involves a subjective assessment – so the question arises, well-being from whose perspective? This leads in to the value of respect for patient dignity and autonomy.